Copper Sulfate Crystals Recipe

Copper Sulfate Crystals Recipe

Copper sulfate crystals are among the easiest and most beautiful crystals to grow. Brilliant blue crystals can grow relatively quickly and become quite large.  Grow Copper Sulfate Crystals Copper Sulfate Crystal Materials Copper sulfate, water, and a clear container are all you need for this project. Although copper sulfate (CuSO4) is sold as a chemical, … Read more

Litmus Paper and the Litmus Test

Litmus Paper and the Litmus Test

By treating filter paper with any of the common pH indicators, you can make paper test strips to determine the pH of an aqueous solution. Litmus was one of the first indicators used for this purpose. Basically, litmus paper is paper that has been treated with a mixture of 10 to 15 natural dyes derived … Read more

What Are the Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers?

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

The transfer of electrons is an electrochemical reaction. You should always know which atoms are oxidized and which atoms are reduced during a reaction. Oxidation numbers are used to keep track of how many electrons are lost or gained by each atom. These oxidation numbers are assigned using the following rules. Rules for Assigning Oxidation … Read more

Gun Cotton: Definition, Hazards & FAQs

gun cotton

Guncotton or nitrocellulose (also known as trinitrocellulose and cellulose nitrate)is a mild explosive, used in rockets, propellants, printing ink bases, leather finishing, and celluloid (a mixture of nitrocellulose and camphor; first used to manufacture billiard balls). It is prepared by treating ordinary cotton with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids, which replaces the hydrogen atom on the OH groups … Read more

What are the Key Differences Between DNA and RNA?


The nucleic acids ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are among the most important molecules in cell biology, which are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in all living things. Despite the fact that they are both linear polymers containing sugars, phosphates, and bases, there are a few key differences between them. Both … Read more